Histamine – the good and the bad – selfhacked
Its name is derived from the Greek word ‘histos’, meaning tissue. Different types of modern art Histamine got its name based on the fact that it can be found in various tissues ( R).
Since then, there has been a multitude of research involving histamine. 2 types of arteries However, there is still a lot we don’t know about histamine and its various functions.
Types of art history Histamine Production
Some types of white blood cells (mast cells and basophils), stomach cells (enterochromaffin-like cells), and histamine-releasing neurons (histaminergic neurons) can both produce and store histamine ( R, R, R).
Other cell types (such as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells), can also produce histamine, but at much lower levels. Types of art books Moreover, they cannot store histamine, and they release it as soon as it is produced ( R, R).
HNMT degrades histamine inside the cells ( R). Different types of fine arts It is present in various tissues, such as the liver, spleen, gut, prostate, ovary, kidneys and lungs ( R). Types of art lines HNMT is also the main enzyme degrading histamine in the brain ( R).
DAO is the main histamine-degrading enzyme in peripheral tissues (gut, connective tissues, placenta, kidneys) ( R, R). 3 types of art This enzyme can be released into the blood, and can therefore degrade histamine found outside of the cells ( R).
Histamine acts as a messenger molecule in the nervous system (neurotransmitter) ( R). Different types of paint for art In the brain, it plays a key role in the sleep–wake cycle, appetite, motivation, learning, memory and sexual behavior ( R, R).
In the rest of the body, histamine is involved in the immune response, it causes smooth muscles and airways to contract, blood vessels to dilate and activates itch and pain-associated nerve cells ( R). Different types of art majors These are all symptoms commonly found in allergies and other conditions in which histamine is increased. Different types of artificial nails Histamine Receptors
The diverse functions of histamine are carried out through four specific histamine receptors: H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R ( R). Different types of art appreciation These are proteins that histamine binds to on the cells. Two types of art They are important, because histamine often has opposing roles, depending on which receptor it activates. Types of art styles list H1R
• H1R is responsible for many of the allergy features, such as redness, itching, swelling ( R), runny nose, airway constriction, anaphylaxis, conjunctivitis (pinkeye), and hives ( R).
• H3R prevents the release of histamine ( R). Different types of arthritis in hands This means that H3R often (but not always) has roles that oppose the activity of other histamine receptors.
• H3R is found in the brain, mainly in histamine-releasing nerve cells ( R, R). Different types of art form It is also present in other tissues, such as the stomach’s enterochromaffin-like cells ( R).
• In the brain, apart from decreasing histamine, H3R also decreases acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, GABA, and glutamate ( R, R, R).
• H4R is found in the bone marrow and white blood cells. Types of art genres It is also present in the spleen, thymus, lung, small intestine, colon and heart ( R, R).
• H4R recruits and activates white blood cells involved in inﬂammatory responses (such as eosinophils, mast cells, neutrophils, T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs)) ( R, R, R).
A high content of histamine is also found in fermented foods such as alcoholic beverages (beer, wine), fermented vegetables, cheeses, meat, soy, and yogurt ( R).
Histamine can also result from bacterial contamination of food when stored improperly. Different types of styles in art Heat and cold don’t affect histamine, so once it’s produced, it is basically irremovable from the food ( R).
For more information about histamine-rich and histamine-releasing foods check the post on histamine intolerance. Different types of art names Histamine Benefits 1) Histamine Increases Alertness and Wakefulness
Early H1 antihistamines, that readily enter the brain (pass the blood-brain barrier), diminish alertness, slow reaction time, and cause drowsiness and sedation ( R, R).
H3R has an opposite effect, it decreases histamine levels and promotes sleep ( R, R). Types of art paint brushes Therefore, blocking H3R induces wakefulness ( R, R, R).
Histamine-releasing neurons are associated with circadian rhythms. Different types of art and design portfolios They are active during wakefulness. Types of art tools They cease working during drowsy states before sleep and resume activity only at high vigilance after waking-up ( R).
Also, drugs that block H1R, such as propiomazine and diphenhydramine, were reported to improve sleep quality ( R). Types of art themes 2) Histamine Reduces Appetite
Brain histamine decreases appetite via H1R and controls eating frequency ( circadian rhythm). 6 types of art Increasing brain histamine suppresses appetite and decreases caloric intake, body weight, and blood triglycerides in rodents and monkeys ( R).
H1R deficient mice have disrupted feeding rhythms, and are prone to develop metabolic syndrome and obesity ( R). Types of art forms Similarly, mice with global histamine deficiency develop stomach fat, high insulin and have impaired glucose tolerance ( R, R).
Depending on the study, H3R both increased and decreased appetite and obesity ( R, R). Types of contemporary art This may be because H3R decrease histamine, but also a variety of other substances in the brain ( R).
Histamine is increased during goal-directed actions, where it plays a central role in motivation ( R). Different types of article 15 This is related to histamine’s role in decreasing appetite. What are different types of arthritis By reducing the drive to eat, histamine helps you focus on the task.
Mice lacking H1R also explore less when put in a new environment. Different types of art and examples Furthermore, they have reduced emotional responses to new environments ( R). Types of media in art 4) Histamine Helps Deal with Danger
Various types of stress increase brain histamine ( R). Types of visual art styles Examples include dehydration, loss of blood, severe infection or emotional stress. Types of fine art paint brushes 5) Histamine Increases Water Intake
Histamine also increases the retention of water within the body, by increasing the release of the hormone vasopressin. Different types of art paint Decreasing histamine, by reducing its production, blocking H1R and H2R or activating H3R, strongly decreases dehydration-induced vasopressin release ( R). How many types of art are there 6) Histamine Improves Cognitive Performance
H1R is important for memory, learning and wakefulness ( R). The types of art H1R deficient mice show general learning and memory impairment. Types of art criticism They have impaired spatial memory, and a failure to integrate space- and time-related information ( R).
Blockade of H3R generally improves memory, attention and cognitive performance ( R, R), and this is associated with both histamine and acetylcholine increase ( R).
Treatments that increase brain histamine improve a form of hereditary temporal lobe epilepsy, while H1R antihistamine diphenhydramine aggravates seizures in this setting ( R).
Blockade of H1R promotes seizures in humans ( R). Different types of abstract art Proconvulsant (seizure-causing) effects of H1R antihistamines have been observed particularly in children ( R).
On the other hand, blockade of H3R, which facilitates histamine release, is anticonvulsant (protects from seizures) ( R). Different types of fine art 9) Histamine Promotes Sexual Behavior and Reproduction
Histamine deficiency and H1R inhibition impair mating behaviors and sexual arousal in mice. Different types of roman art These mice have elevated androgen levels but smaller testicles ( R).
In females, histamine increases the release of hormones such as estradiol, prolactin and LH ( R). Different types of art careers 10) Histamine May be Beneficial in Alzheimer’s
The Alzheimer’s disease drug tacrine is an inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase, but it also inhibits HNMT, thereby, increasing brain histamine levels ( R).
Clinical trials tested H3R inhibitors in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s, but they proved mostly ineffective ( R, R). Types of art pencils 11) Histamine Helps the Body Cool Down
Histamine is released from mast cells (a type of white blood cells) when tissues are inflamed or stimulated by allergens. Different types of art jobs Once released, histamine causes itching ( R, R).
In mice, blocking both the H1R and H4R gave the best results, almost completely blocking the itch response ( R, R). All types of art styles 2) Histamine Increases Inflammation
Histamine can act rapidly in blood vessels and airways, causing acute rhinitis, airway constriction, conjunctivitis, cramping, diarrhea or the skin weal and ﬂare responses, mostly via H1R ( R).
The level of histamine in the airways correlates with the severity of asthma ( R), and histamine can be found in the lungs of asthma patients even during asymptomatic periods ( R).
However, although histamine does play a role in asthma, antihistamines are not very effective in asthma treatment ( R), compared to corticosteroids.
It has been shown that treatment with cetirizine, an H1R inhibitor, over a period of 18 months delayed the onset of asthma in some young children with atopic dermatitis ( R).
In patients with concurrent symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma, treatment with H1R antihistamine decreased rhinitis and asthma symptoms, and improved airway function ( R).
Patients with severe atopic dermatitis have higher blood histamine. Different types of art lines They also have increased spontaneous histamine release in response to different cues such as food ( R).
Reduction of atopic dermatitis was observed in patients with low DAO activity who followed a histamine-free diet for 2 weeks ( R). 5 types of artist 5) Histamine Causes Anaphylaxis
Betahistine, a drug frequently prescribed for motion sickness and vertigo, strongly inhibits H3R and weakly activates H1R ( R). Types of visual art 7) Histamine Causes Headaches
Many migraine patients have histamine intolerance and reduced DAO activity. Types of art education Food rich in histamine triggers headaches, while histamine-free diet and therapy with antihistamines alleviate headaches in these people ( R).
Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is caused by ingesting high levels of histamine ( R, R). Different types of martial art The histamine in the fish is produced by bacteria ( R).
The symptoms of scombroid poisoning are variable and include a peppery or metallic taste, oral numbness, headache, dizziness, palpitations, rapid and weak pulse, low blood pressure, difficulty in swallowing, thirst, hives, rash, flushing, and facial swelling. Types of art styles painting Sometimes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea also occur ( R).
Scombroid poisoning is treated by antihistamines. Types of modern art Corticosteroids are ineffective in this case ( R). Types of art wiki 10) Some People Develop Histamine Intolerance
In contrast to food allergy, in which even a small amount of the allergen causes a reaction, in histamine intolerance, the cumulative amount of histamine is crucial ( R).
Histamine can be increased by internal histamine overproduction or increased ingestion of histidine or histamine (in food, alcohol, or from bacteria). Types of art paintings However, most often, the main cause of histamine intolerance is the impaired degradation of histamine by DAO or HNMT ( R).
Histamine intolerance mimics an allergic reaction. What types of art are there Symptoms include diarrhea, headache, rhino-conjunctival symptoms, asthma, hypotension, arrhythmia, urticaria, pruritus, and flushing ( R).
For histamine-intolerant patients, alcohol and long-ripened or fermented (and therefore histamine-rich) foods, for example aged cheese, cured meat, yeast products, spinach, tomatoes, and histamine liberators, such as citrus fruit, should be avoided ( R, R).
Estrogen increases histamine ( R). Types of art movement Histamine-intolerant women often suffer from headache that is dependent on their menstrual cycle and from dysmenorrhea ( R).
In pregnancy, DAO is produced at very high concentrations by the placenta, and its concentration may become elevated 500 times. List of types of art styles This increased DAO activity may be the reason why, in women with food intolerance, remissions frequently occur during pregnancy ( R).
You can find more information about histamine intolerance and ways to deal with it in the histamine intolerance post. Cool types of art 11) Histamine Causes Ulcers
Rats preferring alcohol have increased brain histamine levels and turnover, more histamine-releasing nerves, but lower H1R and H3R activity ( R).
Blocking H3R activity decreases alcohol intake and alcohol preference in both mice and rats ( R) ( R), while activation of H3R increases alcohol intake, suggesting that H3R increases alcohol preference ( R).
Parkinson’s disease patients have increased brain histamine levels ( R, R), and abnormally high H3R activity ( R). Different types of artificial satellites 16) Histamine May Contribute to Autoimmune Disorders
Conversely, H4R activity was anti-inflammatory in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis ( R, R), where inhibiting H4R exacerbated the disease ( R). Different types of media in art 17) Histamine Contributes to Rheumatoid Arthritis
Inflammatory arthritis is reduced in mice with global histamine deficiency. Different types of contemporary art It was shown that H3R and H4R contribute to arthritis development ( R).
IBS patients with abdominal pain have more mast cells which spontaneously release high amounts of histamine in proximity to gut-associated nerves ( R).
In one study, 58% of the patients with IBS experienced GI symptoms from histamine-releasing food items and foods rich in biogenic amines. Different types of artwork The use of carbon absorbent (which adsorbs histamine from the gut) has been beneficial for some of these patients ( R).
H2R deficient mice have reduced infarct size ( R) and heart damage ( R). Different types of art for preschoolers Histamine can Both Help and Aggravate These Conditions: 1) Bacterial Infection
Conversely, a global deficiency of histamine in mice resulted in a stronger cytokine response and these mice more effectively cleared tuberculosis ( R). Different types of painting art 2) Food Allergy
People with food-allergies have increased histamine production and increased numbers of mast cells (that produce and release histamine) in the gut. Types of art majors Administration of DAO can help in food allergies by degrading histamine in the gut ( R).
However, some histamine activity is beneficial in allergies, because the treatment with H2R inhibitors increased the IgE production against food antigens, contributing to the development of IgE-mediated food allergies ( R). How many types of art 3) Pain
Brain histamine decreases pain ( R). 2 types of articles Increasing brain histamine by increasing histamine production, or inhibiting H3R has analgesic effects ( R, R).
However, activation of H1R or H2R increases the sensitivity to pain ( R). Types of digital art styles H1R and H2R deficient mice have decreased pain sensitivity ( R). Different types of japanese art Also blocking H1R or H2R reduced the pain responses (to thermal and mechanical triggers) in mice ( R, R, R).
Moreover, activation of H4R also contributes to pain, because blocking H4R decreased pain sensitivity in animals ( R). Types of art courses 4) Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Histamine was highly elevated in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. Different types of art designs In CD, increase in histamine production was related to disease activity ( R, R).
On the other hand, histamine activity through H2R may have protective effects in IBD, because the inhibition of H2R increased the risk of hospitalization or surgery in patients with Crohn’s disease ( R).
Furthermore, it was shown that histamine in the blood merges with cholesterol, to produce dendrogenin A (DDA), a compound with antitumor properties. Types of art drawing DAA prevents breast cancer and melanoma in mice ( R).
On the other hand, histamine in general, shifts the immune system from a Th1 to a Th2 pattern ( R). Types of art work This is bad because Th1 cells fight cancer.
Histamine production is increased in tumor tissues, such as breast cancer, colon cancer, melanoma, lymphomas, and leukemia ( R). Different types of art list Histamine within tumors can enhance tumor growth, by suppressing Th1 responses (LT-α, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) via the H2R ( R).
• A variant of HNMT increases the risk of developing atopic dermatitis in children twofold, while another variant is associated with chronic urticaria ( R).
• The number of H4R copies correlates to the incidence of arthritis, proteinuria, and antinuclear antibody abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ( R).