Drugs to support smoking cessation in uk general practice_ are evidence based guidelines being followed_
Primary care has an important role in identifying and treating smokers motivated to quit. Laser smoking cessation ottawa 1 , 2 , 3 Guidelines published in the UK by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 4 recommend that GPs offer drug therapy (nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion) and ongoing support from professionals trained in smoking cessation (either within or outside the practice) to all smokers who are motivated to quit. Hypnosis for smoking cessation A national network of smoking cessation services (SCS) was established in the UK in 2000.
Benefits of quitting smoking chart These services may be offered either within or outside the practice setting, and may employ their own staff or train and fund practice based staff. Smoking cessation guidelines uk 5 Smokers receiving a prescription for NRT or bupropion from general practice therefore fall into three groups; those who requested it themselves, those referred by SCS, and those identified by the GP or practice nurse as likely to benefit from treatment. Smoking cessation guidelines 2014 A recent national survey found that about twice as many smokers received help from a doctor or other health professional (15%) than from SCS (7%). Smoking cessation drugs nicotine replacement products 6
The NICE guidelines also emphasise the importance of negotiating a quit date and prescribing for 4 weeks or less at the first consultation, with a second consultation to renew supplies and reinforce motivation. Smoking cessation symptoms The British National Formulary (BNF) recommends that treatment with NRT should last at least 8 weeks, and that a course of bupropion should last at least 7 weeks. Laser smoking cessation 7
Both NRT and bupropion approximately double the success of a quit attempt compared with brief advice only, although it is unclear whether either is more effective. Smoking cessation hypnosis youtube Quit rates again double when these treatments are used with specialist support. Online smoking cessation 8 A modelling exercise predicted 12 month quit rates with brief advice for NRT and bupropion of 5.0% and 7.05%, respectively, rising to 14.75% and 17.92% with the addition of specialist support. Smoking cessation uk 9
Little is known about how NRT and bupropion are used in general practice and whether guidelines are being followed. Laser smoking cessation edmonton In a previous study using a large anonymised UK GP dataset we showed that only about 6% of known smokers received a prescription for either product over a 2 year period, suggesting that treatments were not being offered to all motivated smokers, but routine data did not enable us to investigate the context in which a prescription was issued or how the drugs were actually used. Smoking cessation cdc 10
In this survey of patients from 25 general practices who recently received prescriptions for these products, we aimed to determine who initiated the prescription, whether guidelines were followed at the time of prescription, and what additional support was taken up. Benefits of quitting smoking hair Secondary aims included comparing how NRT and bupropion were used and an estimate of cessation rates achieved.
Forty general practices from the Trent Focus Collaborative Research Network 11 were invited to take part in the study. Benefits of smoking cessation programs Of these, 33 initially agreed and 25 completed the survey. Smoking cessation counseling training Reasons for withdrawal included practice staff shortages, problems with practice computing systems, and delays in obtaining ethics and research governance approval. Camh smoking cessation training The study was approved by Thames Valley Multicentre Research Ethics Committee.
In each practice a sample of up to 40 patients prescribed NRT and 40 prescribed bupropion between 3 and 9 months from the time of data extraction were identified from the electronic patient records using the MIQUEST (Morbidity Information and Query Export Syntax) computer software program. Smoking cessation drugs 12 This program allows researchers or other enquirers to write queries and extract data from different types of general practice computer systems using a common query language and has been used extensively in other studies. Benefits of quitting smoking while pregnant We did not include patients prescribed treatment more recently as we wanted to assess cessation rates at 3 months, by which time the course of treatment would be completed. Benefits of quitting smoking before 30 A cut off point of 9 months was used to produce an adequate sample size but reduce risk of recall bias. What is smoking cessation If the sample included patients prescribed both products, we identified the last prescription. Laser surgery for smoking cessation In practices where more than 40 patients had been prescribed a product we selected the 40 most recent. Smoking cessation hypnosis nyc We included a maximum of 40 patients per practice for each drug (double what we expected to find for NRT prescribing in an average practice) so our total sample would not be too weighted by a few large or high prescribing practices.
A questionnaire was developed to answer the following: who suggested the prescription (patient, SCS, GP, practice nurse); whether guidelines were followed (setting a quit date, offer of referral to SCS or practice follow up, duration of treatment); any contact with SCS after treatment; use of other supports; and sustained cessation in a 3 month period before completing the questionnaire. Benefits of quitting smoking pot We also included questions about age, education, and ethnicity. Smoking cessation hypnosis cost Intensity of smoking and time until first cigarette were combined to calculate the Fagerstrom index. Benefits of quitting smoking with patch 13 This is calculated by adding scores of time to first cigarette (<5 minutes = 3, 5–30 minutes = 2, 3–60 minutes = 1, longer = 0) to the score for cigarettes per day (>30 = 3, 21–30 = 2, 11–20 = 1, 10 or less = 0). Laser for smoking cessation does it work The questionnaire sent to patients receiving NRT therapy contained additional questions relating to the preparation used and whether supplies were purchased from a pharmacist. Smoking cessation hypnosis calgary The two versions of the questionnaire were printed on different coloured paper to prevent confusion.
The questionnaires were piloted in two general practices. Does laser smoking cessation work Results showed the questions were understandable and produced appropriate responses. What is smoking cessation program Only minor changes to layout were made, so results from the pilot study were included with those from the main study.
Researchers arranged an appointment with a member of staff in each practice at which time a search of patient records was conducted using MIQUEST. Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals an update For the purposes of follow up, patients identified from the searches were assigned an anonymised code number identifiable by practice staff only. Smoking cessation training The appropriate questionnaires, on University letterhead and including patient code numbers, were sent out by practice staff with a covering letter from the GP, an information sheet, and a freepost envelope for return of the questionnaire to the research team. E cigarette smoking cessation Respondents were given the option of returning the questionnaire uncompleted and indicating that they did not wish to receive reminders. Acupuncture smoking cessation About 2 weeks after the first mailing researchers notified practices of the code numbers of patients who had not replied and asked them to send a reminder letter with an additional questionnaire, information sheet, and freepost envelope.
Sample size was chosen to give reasonable precision in descriptive data rather than to compare users of NRT and bupropion. Billing for smoking cessation counseling From our previous study 10 we estimated that an average participating practice would have prescribed NRT or bupropion to about 20 patients in a 6 month period. American lung association smoking cessation training Assuming 25 practices would agree and a 70% response rate, this would yield 350 completed questionnaires. Cigarette smoking cessation An estimate of precision is that if 50% of responders reported a quit date had been set, the 95% confidence intervals around this would be 44.6% to 55.4%.
Responses were numerically coded and double entered into SPSS version 11. Benefits of quitting smoking after one week Data were analysed descriptively and 95% confidence intervals (Clopper Pearson) calculated using the Statsdirect program. Smoking cessation hypnosis free In making comparisons we used parametric ( t test) and non‐parametric tests (Mann‐Whitney) as appropriate. Laser smoking cessation mn Analysis was not adjusted for clustering of responses by practice and this will tend to underestimate the standard errors and hence the width of the confidence intervals.
We also asked how long in total they were advised to take the treatment, how long the first prescription was for, and for how long they actually took the treatment. Smoking cessation clinic Median responses were in line with prescribing guidelines, although the median length of treatment actually taken was shorter than that advised. What is a smoking cessation clinic Detailed results are shown in table 3 3. . Benefits of quitting smoking tobacco Seventy four of those prescribed NRT (23%) reported buying additional supplies from the pharmacist or supermarket. Smoking cessation guidelines nice Assistance from SCS was reported by 200 respondents (52%). Medication for smoking cessation Of those who attended SCS, 134 (39%) reported completing the programme.
This survey provides new information about how drugs to support smoking cessation are used in UK general practice, and will be of use as baseline estimates in interventions to increase the impact of general practice in reducing smoking prevalence.
Both NRT and bupropion were prescribed predominantly to middle aged groups, and to women more than men. 4 benefits of quitting smoking Most prescriptions were reported as following a request from the patient rather than being initiated by the GP or practice nurse. Stop smoking cessation The limitations of a postal questionnaire meant it was not possible to explore more complex issues such as how the prescription was negotiated, nor can we know how many smokers declined the offer of a prescription.
The majority of respondents reported appropriate support at the time of the first prescription, including advice on how to use the treatment, setting a quit date, and the offer of follow up. Smoking cessation with hypnosis The finding that 15% did not recall advice about contacting SCS or an offer of follow up in practice suggests that a minority of patients are being treated with inadequate support. Smoking cessation methods GPs appeared to be following guidelines for the duration of first prescription and total duration of treatment for both NRT and bupropion. Benefits of quitting smoking pdf This finding is important, even if some respondents may have been uncertain about whether support in practice was provided by SCS or not. Smoking cessation counselor jobs A possible explanation for bupropion being used in more dependent smokers is that GPs use it as second line treatment where NRT has failed, although there is no evidence to support this strategy.
Cessation rates were a secondary aim of the study, given that they were vulnerable to response bias and reliant on self‐report, but were included as there is a lack of observational studies in general practice, particularly on the effectiveness of bupropion. Laser smoking cessation florida Reported quit rates in the 3 month period before completing the questionnaire was 35%, higher than expected from previous studies. Quitting smoking drugs prescription If we assume that all non‐respondents continued to smoke but that those who did respond did not misrepresent their habit, overall quit rate remains high at approximately 15% and within the range predicted by synthesis of trial data. Smoking cessation education 9 The only predictor of success was that the suggestion for treatment came from SCS, probably because the most motivated smokers are likely to access these services directly. Most effective smoking cessation drugs Similar quit rates were reported by those attending SCS and those supported in practice.
The major limitation in interpreting the results is the low response rate, despite using several techniques that have been shown to maximise response such as personalised letters, stamped return envelopes, and including a copy of the questionnaire with the reminder letter. Smoking cessation training online 14 We considered a second reminder, but there is evidence that this may not be justified 15 and the ethics committee advised us against this. Smoking cessation 5as guideline However, the response rate we did achieve is similar to other recent health surveys 16 and within the range for papers published in medical journals. Level 3 smoking cessation training 17 Several factors may have contributed to the low response. Best smoking cessation drugs We relied on participating practices to send out questionnaires and reminders and, in several cases, we know from contacting the practices that this was not done within the suggested time frame. Smoking cessation hypnosis houston Because of delays in obtaining research governance approval the survey was conducted over the summer months when respondents are more likely to have been on holiday. Smoking cessation guidelines australia Additionally, resources did not allow us to produce versions for non‐English speakers. Smoking cessation laser training Response bias may have caused an overestimation of quit rates as it is likely that those who stopped smoking would be more likely to respond. What is a smoking cessation As one would also expect an association between evidence based care and cessation, we may also have overestimated the proportion of patients receiving good quality care, including use of SCS.
Another limitation of the survey is that responses to some questions relied on the memory of an event that occurred 3–9 months previously. Smoking cessation guidelines pdf We dealt with this by giving a “don’t know” option which was used by a significant minority in response to questions about what was discussed at the time of prescription. Smoking cessation hypnosis cd Although lack of recall might underestimate support given at the time of prescribing, a bias operating in the opposite direction is that respondents may have been reluctant to appear to criticise their GP or nurse by reporting that certain elements of advice were not given. Smoking cessation drugs wellbutrin We tried to minimise this bias by prefacing the question with “practices may manage smoking cessation in different ways”. The health benefits of smoking cessation In retrospect, there would have been advantages in sending the questionnaire soon after the consultation and sacrificing our secondary aim of assessing cessation at 3 months. The benefits of smoking cessation Finally, we cannot claim that doctors and nurses in participating practices were representative of the UK. Va smoking cessation guidelines Members of research networks are more involved in teaching and training, 18 and perhaps more likely to be aware of and adhere to guidelines. Smoking cessation hypnosis near me It is therefore likely that, across the UK, practices are even less actively involved in smoking cessation.